Vol. 2 No. 11 (2023)
Articles

HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF METALS CONTAMINATION IN CHOCOLATES AND CHEWING GUM SOLD IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA

Sani Khalid Sulaiman
Department of Life Sciences, Kano State Polytechnic, Kano State, Nigeria
Musa Ahmed Abubakar
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Kano State Polytechnic, Kano State, Nigeria. aamusakanopoly@gmail.com, +2348061619400
Umar Shittu
Department of Biology, Isa Kaita College of Education Dutsin-ma, Katsina State, Nigeria

Published 2023-12-19

Keywords

  • Heavy metals,
  • Contamination,
  • Confectionaries,
  • Chemical constituents

How to Cite

Sani Khalid Sulaiman, Musa Ahmed Abubakar, & Umar Shittu. (2023). HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF METALS CONTAMINATION IN CHOCOLATES AND CHEWING GUM SOLD IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA. Scholarly Journal of Social Sciences Research, 2(11), 1-13. https://www.openjournals.ijaar.org/index.php/sjssr/article/view/303

How to Cite

Sani Khalid Sulaiman, Musa Ahmed Abubakar, & Umar Shittu. (2023). HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF METALS CONTAMINATION IN CHOCOLATES AND CHEWING GUM SOLD IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA. Scholarly Journal of Social Sciences Research, 2(11), 1-13. https://www.openjournals.ijaar.org/index.php/sjssr/article/view/303

Abstract

Confectionaries such as chocolates and chewing gums are consumed routinely in Nigeria due to their affordability and characteristic taste and flavor. However, the high demand may affect the quality of manufacture and production with possible contamination of heavy metals which have shown to cause serious illness or death in humans. In this research, a total of 20 representative chocolate and chewing gum samples were collected from local shops and markets in Kano metropolitan. All the samples were analyzed to determine the presence of some chemical constituents of health significance (sugar, phosphates, carbohydrates, fats and proteins) and to assess the levels of Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The results showed the presence of sugar, phosphates, carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the sampled chocolates and chewing gums at varying concentrations. The results also indicated concentration of Ni, Cd, Cr and Pb in the range of 0.10 – 1.21 mg/g, 0.17 – 1.51 mg/g, 0.10 – 1.99 mg/g, and 0.45 – 3.55 mg/g in chocolate samples respectively, while the mean concentration of Ni, Cd, Cr and Pb in chewing gum samples ranged from 0.10 – 4.23 mg/g, 0.33 – 3.91 mg/g, 0.50 – 5.34 mg/g and 0.55 – 2.50 mg/g, respectively. Higher concentration of all the studied metals were found in chewing gum compared to chocolate samples. All the confectionaries studied indicated presence of the studied metals (Ni, Cr and Pb) at concentrations which exceeded the permissible limit recommended by WHO/FAO and China standard limits of 0.1 – 1.4 mg/g in both chocolate and chewing gum brands studied with exception of Cd in only one sample of chewing gum (3.91 mg/g). Therefore, consumption of these products may likely to pose health risk implication. Thus, there is need to exercise caution in consumption of these confectionary products. Also, the presence of chemical constituents in both chocolates and chewing gums contribute to the characteristic taste of the confectionaries which justifies their frequent consumption in the country.

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