ANTIMICROBIAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF TUBERS OF Dioscorea dumetorum SOURCED WITHIN BENUE STATE
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The emergence and re-emergence of diseases have left researchers with no option than to focus spot-light on the discovery of bioactive metabolites from medicinal plants to compliment synthetic orthodox drugs in the fight against diseases caused by infectious agents. The aim of this research is to investigate the phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of D. dumetorum. Alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and tannins were determined. The MIC values were studied for the bacterial strains that were sensitive to the extracts in the agar well diffusion method. The result showed that aqueous extract had the highest percentage yield of 12.1% and 13.8%, followed by ethanol extract of 7.1% and 6.4% while methanol had the lowest of 5.7% and 5.2% for wild and edible types respectively. The aqueous extract had no antimicrobial activity on all test isolates. Both ethanol and methanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity against four test organisms viz; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes. However, methanol extract indicated higher zones of inhibition on the test organisms than the ethanol extract. Highest zone of inhibition (20.0mm) was observed with methanol extract on Staphylococcus aureus followed by Escherichia coli (16.0mm) while the least (6.0mm) was recorded with ethanol extract on Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tuber demonstrated a better and more promising source of antimicrobial effect. This potential should be appreciated and hence its use in modern medicine.