Vol. 1 No. 3 (2023)
Articles

ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC INVESTIGATION OF Annona squamosa Linn (SUGAR APPLE) ON HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELLS

Binta M. A
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Kano State Polytechnic, Nigeria
Musa A. A
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Kano State Polytechnic, Nigeria. aamusakanopoly@gmail.com,+2348061619400
Idris S. I
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Kano State Polytechnic, Nigeria

Published 2023-10-11

Keywords

  • Annona squamosa L.,
  • leaf,
  • cancer cell lines,
  • antioxidant property,
  • cytotoxicity

How to Cite

Binta M. A, Musa A. A, & Idris S. I. (2023). ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC INVESTIGATION OF Annona squamosa Linn (SUGAR APPLE) ON HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELLS. American Research Journal of Contemporary Issues, 1(3), 68-83. https://www.openjournals.ijaar.org/index.php/arjci/article/view/309

How to Cite

Binta M. A, Musa A. A, & Idris S. I. (2023). ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC INVESTIGATION OF Annona squamosa Linn (SUGAR APPLE) ON HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELLS. American Research Journal of Contemporary Issues, 1(3), 68-83. https://www.openjournals.ijaar.org/index.php/arjci/article/view/309

Abstract

Background and Objectives:  Cancer is a common cause of death worldwide in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa L. is a common delicious edible fruit with different parts of the plant having various therapeutic potentials; however, little is known about the anticancer property of the plant. Thus, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of its leaf-extracts were evaluated to support its traditional claim for preventive health care.

Methods:  Qualitative phytochemical screening was carried out to detect the presence of bioactive components of A. squamosa l using standard procedure. The cytotoxic effect of the extracts on Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) was determined by MTT assay. For the antioxidant activity, 2, 2, diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay was used. Total phenolic content (TPC) was evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu techniques.

Results:  The ethanolic extract of A. squamosa exhibited higher percentage yield of 27.4 % compared to 22.5 % of aqueous during the solvent extraction procedure. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts showed IC50 values of 0.27 and 3.24 mg/ mL for ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively indicating stronger cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 cell lines in ethanolic extract. The TPC was also higher in ethanolic extract compared to aqueous which was 0.131 and 0.105 mg of GA/ g of extracts, respectively. For the antioxidant activity, both ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed IC50 values of > 8 mg/mL in comparison of 0.03 mg/mL of the standard ascorbic acid, indicating low antioxidant activity. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of A. squamosa l exhibited a weak, negative correlation between TPC and percentage inhibition of DPPH. The phytochemical screening of the extracts reveals the presence of several phytochemical compounds namely alkaloid, saponin, flavonoid and fixed oil and fats with maximum presence of phytochemicals in ethanolic compared to aqueous extract of A. squamosa.

Conclusion: the present result shows that the ethanolic extract of A. squamosa which exhibited higher percentage yield, antiproliferative activity, TPC content and maximum presence of phytochemicals can be used as a potential source of anticancer agent but not a good source of natural antioxidants. Thus, A. squamosa leaf-extracts may be developed as a potential novel drug for the treatment of breast cancer in the future.

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